The constitution is the supreme law of a country. It provisions the structure of the Government and decides the State Power into various organs of state. Our country is governed as for the provision made in the constitution. The constitution of Nepal was formulated by the Constituent Assembly and implemented on 3rd Asoj, 2072 BS.
Main Characteristics Of Constitution Of Nepal
1. Constitution by struggle and revolution
This competition it’s used in accordance with the People’s will and interest as a result of our historical people’s movement.
2. Documents of political consensus
This constitution is promulgated by the constituent assembly with the political agreement after a long discussion and efforts.
3. Federal, democratic, Republic constitution
This has made the provision of the Federal Democratic Republic system. According to it, the president is the head of state. It has also made a provision of three levels of democratic government; Federal. Provincial and Local Level.
4. Sovereignty Vested in People
It has clarified that the sovereignty and state authority of Nepal shall be vested in the people of Nepal.
5. Guarantee of Fundamental Rights and Human Rights
This constitution has fully accepted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It ensures and guarantees the fundamental rights of citizens.
6. Independent Judiciary and Rule Of Law
This constitution has adopted the concept of independent judiciary and rule of law. It states that everyone is equal before the law, nobody shall be de[rived from the protection of the law, and no person will be punished for an act unpunishable by law. Similarly, it has made the provision of three tiers of courts; Supreme Court, High Court, and District Court.
7. Competitive Multi-Party Democratic System
According to the constitution, we can establish political parties with our own philosophy and ideology and get people’s support. Political parties established within the norms and values of the Constitution cannot be banned.
8. Inclusive Constitution
This constitution has mentioned that no one should be discriminated against in accordance with their caste, culture, class, lingual, gender, and religion. Everybody’s identity should be respected. It Infra sizes on the prosperity of people and community who are socially discriminated against and harassed. It also focuses on Social Justice.
9. Mixed Electoral System
in the lower house under the federal parliament, the house of representatives, 165 members are elected through First-Past-The_Post electoral system and 110 members are elected through the proportional electoral system. In this case, Nepal assembly, the Single Transferable Vote system has been adopted.
This constitution has established Nepal as a secular country. It also mentions that equality and cooperation between the different religions will be developed for healthy and harmonious social relations.
Besides these, other characteristics of the constitution are:
11. Provision of civil Liberty, adult franchise, periodic election, and complete press freedom.
12. Federal Parliament with the bicameral system ( House of Representatives and National Assembly ),
13. Provision of directive principles, policies, and responsibilities of the state as a guideline for the governance,
14. Provision of restructuring the state and division of State Power
15. Constitution Body is national natural resources and FicalCommission, National Women Commission, National Dalit Commission, National Inclusion Commission, indigenous in nationalities Commission, Madhesi Commission, Tharu Commission, Muslim Commission are added to empower and address the need of concerned groups.