Why Political Instability increased in Nepal
The political history of Nepal from 2007 to 2017 BS was full of trembling and political instability. The reasons for political instability are as follows:
1. The revolution of 2007 was succeeded, and a democratic system was introduced. But most of the people were not aware of the democratic system.
2. Political parties were not mature and the Rana’s wanted to re-establish the old regime.
3. At the same time, the government changed time and again.
4. King Mahendra was not in favor of the Democratic system and he wanted to exercise more power.
According to the Delhi agreement, a coalition government of the Nepali Congress and Rana was formed. This government passed the interim constitution on 17th Chaitra 2007 BS. This was the first democratic constitution of Nepal. It had 7 parts, 73 articles, and 3 indexes. Some important features of this constitution were:
1. There was the provision of establishing the legislature of people representatives and directive principles and policies of the state.
2. Civil rights of the citizen were also defined in this constitution.
3. There was the provision of the Supreme Court, public service commission, and Advisory Council.
But the coalition government could not work smoothly as there was always conflict between Ranas and Congress. Nepali Congress thought that they could not work properly until Mohan Shamsher was in power. So, on the 25th of Kartik 2008BS, all cabinet members from Nepali Congress resigned and Mohan Shumsher and other cabinet members from the side of Ranas were also compelled to resign.
After the resignation of Mohan Shumsher, a 14 member cabinet was formed by King Tribhuvan under the leadership of Martika Prashad Koirala, the then president of Nepali Congress on 1st Mangsir 2008 BS. This cabinet had to fulfill the following responsibilities.
1. To establish an independent judicial department,
2. To implement the provision of Public Service Commission effectively,
3. To hold the election of Constituent Assembly within the year of 2009 BS,
4. To ascertain the civil rights of the people.
This government also could not function properly and fail. The reasons for the failure of government with King Tribhuvan and Matrika Prasad Koirala were as follows:
1. Various political parties and organizations like Nepal Praj Parishad, Communist Party of Nepal, the, etc head formed United Democratic Front and demanding to form an all-party government.
2. At the same time Dr. K.I Singh started to revolt against this government. But he was unsuccessful and fled to Tibet.
3. Bhim Dutta Panta, one of the commanders of the People’s Liberation Army during the revolution was also very dissatisfied with the acts of this government. He had launched a movement raising his voice for land ownership, the welfare of the people, and security.
4. The government was being criticized from all sectors. Similarly, conflicts took place in the Nepali Congress party regarding this government.
Due to all these reasons, the Government of Nepal Congress was dissolved.
King Tribhuvan again formed a 5 member advisory government on 30th Shravan 2009 BS but it was also criticized inside the country and by the Government of India as well. So this government was also dissolved in 2010 BS. King Tribhuvan formed another cabinet of five members under Matrika PD. Koirala on 2nd Ashad 2010 BS.
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Five ministers were not sufficient to handle all departments of the government therefore twelve secretaries were also appointed to run the state affairs. Due to internal conflict in the party and its inability to maintain peace in the country the government of Matrika Prashad Koirala was also dissolved in 2011 BS. In the same year King Tribhuvan after enthronement, King Mahendra had formed an Advisory Council and started direct rule in Nepal.
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On 13th Magh 2012 BS, another government was formed under the leadership of Tanka Prashad Acharya, the president of Praja Parishad. This government also was dissolved in 2013 BS after six months of its formation and another cabinet was formed under the leadership of Dr. K.I Singh on 11th Shrawan 2013 BS but this government also could not exist for a long time. Thus, during 2007 to 2017 BS, many governments were formed and dismissed, creating political instability and lawlessness in Nepal.