Civic Awareness

Legislature : Definition, Types, Function

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by Alex Hurd

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There are three main organs of the government. They are legislative, executive, and judiciary. This exercises different powers and functions. To run the country smoothly this plays a vital role. Parliament is the legislative body of the government. It makes laws. The country functions on the basis of these laws. The councils of ministers or governments are the executive body. It carries out these laws. Judicial Institutions are judiciary. It ensures that everyone gets justice. It produces the guilty and when the laws are violated.


How Executive, Legislative, and Judiciary control each other?

There is a check and balance among these organs. They control each other. Legislative can question the functions of the Executive to control it. If the executive does not work properly, the legislative can launch the vote of no confidence against the executive. Similarly, the head of the Executive can dissolve the legislative and go for refreshment 8 or election if it is unable to work. The legislative also controls the Judiciary by removing the Jaws if they perform improperly. At the same time, Judiciary can order to stop the work of the legislative and executive if they are not according to the law and constitution of the country.

What is legislative?

The legislative is the law-making body of the country. Making law is the most important function of the state. The country functions under the laws made by the Legislature.

Parliament is the legislative body of the country. It may be unicameral or bicameral. The Parliament having only one house is called unicameral where is the parliament having two houses is called bicameral. The houses of Parliament are called by a different names in different countries such as the house of commons and House of Lords in Britain, the house of representatives and Senate in the USA, and Loksabha and Rajyasabha in India. Similarly, legislative is called by different names such as Congress in the USA, Diet in Japan, Parliament in Britain, etc. Legislative came on an organ of a state in the 18th and 19th centuries. In most countries, the members of the Legislative are elected by the people.

Types of Legislature

  1. Unicameral 
  2. Bicameral

Functions of Legislature

Several types of functions are conducted by modern legislation. It controls the executive in the Countries having a Parliamentary system. Besides making laws, it also performs various other tasks. They are:

1. Formulation of laws

The main function of the Legislature is to formulate new laws or and prevailing laws according to the need of the country. The legislature,  which is composed of representatives elected by the people, formulate the law according to the will of the people. A bill is introduced, discussed, and bled in the legislature and after necessary amendment, it is asserted by the president. After the assent of the President, it becomes a law.

2. Administrative function

The Prime Minister is appointed by the members of the house of representatives and councils of the minister are formed under his/her chairmanship. The councils of minister can exist until it gets the support of the majority members of the house of representatives. The members of the Council of Ministers by asking questions, forwarding the proposal to draw attention, and criticizing it. One-fourth of the total numbers of the then members of the house of the representative may table of motion of no-confidence in writing that the House has no confidence in the Prime Minister. If a motion of no confidence table is passed by a majority of the total number of the then members of the house of representatives, the Prime Minister shall be relieved of his or her office.

3. Financial Controlling Function

The legislature has a special role to pass the annual budget of the country. No tax can be imposed on the people and no money can be spent from the national treasury without the permission of the legislature. The main reason for giving more power to the legislature in financial matters is to establish the right of the people in the revenue of the country. In this way, the legislature as the representative maintains financial control. Therefore, the legislature is called the guardian of the national treasury.

4. Constitution amending function

In most countries, the provision of an amendment of the Constitution is made in the constitution itself. In England, India, the USA, Switzerland, etc the constitution can be amended by the parliament of those countries. 

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Alex Hurd

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